What is Difference Between Chromatin And Chromosomes?

Chromatin vs Chromosomes

Difference Between Chromatin And Chromosomes
Difference Between Chromatin And Chromosomes

The difference Between Chromatin And Chromosomes is that each of the cells of living beings is organized in such a way that they can allow the main activities of living beings such as nutrition, relationship, and reproduction. Therefore, each cell has its own life. These are made up of three main structures: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.

In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, those that contain cytoplasm are complex substances bound to the protein, called chromatin; which, when condensed in the cells in mitosis gives rise to the chromosomes.

Key points of the difference between Chromosome and Chromatin

  • Chromatin fibers are long and thin but the Chromosomes are compact, thick, and ribbon-like.
  • Chromatin are uncoiled structures that are found inside the nucleus.. Chromosomes are coiled structures seen prominently during cell division.
  • Chromatin is made up of an unraveled condensed structure of DNA for its packaging into the nucleus but the chromosome consists of a highely condensed structure of the DNA double helix.
  • Chromosomes serve as a support for the transmission of hereditary characteristics but chromatin from chromosomes by super condensation.

What are chromosomes?

First, chromosomes are structures that are found inside a cell and that contain genetic information. Each of them contains a DNA molecule, associated with RNA and proteins. Most of the time, the chromosomes are presented in an unfolded way inside the cell but during the process of cell division, they are grouped together forming an X (X). In their structure, chromosomes contain the nucleosome, where DNA is compacted. In turn, each nucleosome is connected to the other by means of a DNA fragment forming a nucleosome chain. This chain is rolled into a solenoid that, when folded, gives rise to a chromatin fiber.

Now, during cell division, chromosomes condense together with the DNA molecule, protein and RNA to form a chromatid. Each chromosome forms two chromatids that, at the end of mitosis, these separate to give way to two independent chromosomes. Also, in human eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are related to sex (X for the female and Y for the male), they are composed of 23 XY pairs, for a total of 46 chromosomes. When there is an alteration in these quantities, physical and neurological or growth problems arise during fertilization. Difference Between Chromatin And Chromosomes

What is chromatin?

Chromatin is the genetic material found in a eukaryotic cell during the interface. That is, before cell division. It is formed by bilaterian DNA, associated with basic proteins rich in amino acids such as arginine and lysine. Two types of chromatin can be distinguished during the interface:

-The euchromatin: where is little condensed chromatin.

-The heterochromatin: where chromatin so condensed and stained by 90%. In it, the DNA is not transcribed and remains inactive.


Chromatin and chromosome are the two types of condensed structures of DNA molecules. Interphase DNA exists as a thread-like structure called chromatin. The main purpose of chromatin is to package double-stranded DNA into the cell nucleus with the help of histone proteins. DNA molecules are condensed 50 times more than their normal structure in chromatin fibers. The chromosome only appears in the metaphase of the cell cycle, reaching its highest condensed structure. The main purpose of the chromosome is to ensure the separation of the doubled genetic material between the two daughter cells. The main difference between chromatin and chromosome is their condensation and functioning during the cell cycle.

Difference between Chromosome and Chromatin

  Chromosomes Chromatin
Composition It is composed of DNA and protein. It is composed of DNA, histones and non-historic proteins.
Aniline It does not contain aniline. It contains aniline.
Function They are responsible for transporting DNA. They are responsible for shaping the chromosomes.
Quantities There are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. There are only 2 types of chromatins: euchromatin and heterochromatin.

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