What is Difference Between Active And Passive Immunity?

Difference Between Active And Passive Immunity is that The immune system protects the body from a variety of pathogens and toxins. Innate immunity provides first-line defense against pathogens through physical and chemical barriers such as skin, mucous layers, and saliva. The second line defense is also generated by innate immunity through phagocytes. The third line defense is Difference Between Active And Passive Immunitygenerated by adaptive immunity. Active and passive immunity are two types of adaptive immunity. Both active and passive immunity deal with antibodies.

The main difference between active and passive immunity is that Active immunity develops through the production of antibodies by the person’s own body, while passive immunity is developed by antibodies that are produced abroad.

Immunity can be classified into two major types: natural and acquired.

The body’s ability to defend against the presence of pathogens is called natural immunity. This immunity is characteristic of each race or each species and is transmitted by inheritance.

Acquired immunity can be classified into two types:

·         Active, which is the immunity acquired through a specific disease, either by its pre-clinical, clinical or even non-transparent manifestations (without manifestations); It can also be classified as artificial active when obtained through the application of vaccines.

  • Passive, immunity acquired through maternal antibodies during the process of pregnancy or lactation (natural) or by the application of sera or immunoglobulins (artificial).
  • What is active immunity?

    Active immunity refers to immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the person’s own immune system in response to direct contact of an antigen. The two types of active immunity are naturally acquired active immunity and artificially acquired active immunity. In naturally acquired active immunity, the body is naturally exposed to antigens. The surface molecules of the antigen serve as epitopes for the production of antibodies. T cells (cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells), antigen-presenting cells (dendritic and macrophage cells) and B cells (memory B cells and plasma B cells) participate in naturally acquired active immunity. Since the body’s immune system produces the antibody by itself,

    During artificially acquired active immunity, antigens are artificially introduced into the body in the form of vaccines. The immune response to the first exposure to the pathogen is called the primary response. The secondary response occurs in the second exposure to the pathogen and generates a much stronger immune response. Due to the production of memory cells, active immunity lasts a long time.

What is passive immunity?

Passive immunity refers to short-term immunity, which results from the introduction of antibodies from the outside. Therefore, passive immunity does not require direct exposure of the body to pathogens. Since antibodies are introduced into the body, the immune response can be rapidly generated. But, passive immunity only lasts several days.

Passive immunity can be of two types; Naturally acquired passive immunity or artificially acquired passive immunity. Naturally acquired passive immunity is the transmission of antibodies from the mother to the child through colostrum and breast milk. The artificially acquired passive immunity is the injection of antisera and the injection of snake antivenom.

Similarities between active and passive immunity

  • Both active and passive immunity are two types of adaptive immunity.
  • Both active and passive immunity deal with antibodies.
  • Both active and passive immunity can be acquired naturally or acquired artificially.

Difference between active and passive immunity

Definition

Active immunity: Active immunity refers to immunity, which results from the production of antibodies by the person’s own immune system in response to direct contact of an antigen.

Passive immunity: Passive immunity refers to a short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from the outside.

Antibodies

Active immunity: Active immunity is mediated by antibodies produced by the person’s own cells.

Passive immunity: Passive immunity is mediated by antibodies produced outside the body.

Pathogen

Active immunity: The pathogen has direct contact with the body.

Passive immunity: The pathogen has no direct contact with the body.

Response time

Active immunity: Active immunity does not generate a rapid response.

Passive immunity: Passive immunity generates a rapid response.

Duran

Active immunity: Active immunity can last a long time (for life).

Passive immunity: Passive immunity cannot last for a long time (2 to 3 days).

Immunological memory

Active immunity: Active immunity generates an immunological memory.

Passive immunity: Passive immunity does not generate immunological memory.

Side effects

Active immunity: The side effects of adaptive immunity are very low.

Passive immunity: The body can react to antisera.

In immunodeficient hosts

Active immunity: Active immunity does not work in immunodeficient hosts.

Passive immunity: Passive immunity works in immunodeficient hosts.

conclusion

Active and passive immunity are two types of immunities in antibody-mediated immunity. Active immunity is mediated by antibodies produced by the person’s own body. Passive immunity is mediated by antibodies produced abroad. Passive immunity can be used to generate a rapid immune response. The main difference between active and passive immunity is the origin of the antibodies used in each type of immunity.

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