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CELL BIOLOGY

What is Difference Between Karyokinesis And Cytokinesis?

Difference Between Karyokinesis And Cytokinesis is that Caryokinesis and cytokinesis are two steps in cell division. Cryokinesis is the division of genetic material replicated in an equitable manner between two child nuclei. During the karyokinesis, a series of events that are collectively called mitosis are carried out. Generally, during mitotic cell division, karyokinesis is followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm and organelles divide equally. Difference Between Karyokinesis And Cytokinesis

The main difference between karyokinesis and cytokinesis is that karyokinesis is the equitable distribution of the replicated genetic material between two daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis is the approximately equal distribution of cytoplasm between the two daughter cells.

What is Karyokinesis?

Cryokinesis is the equitable distribution of genetic material between two nuclei, which is the first step of cell division. It is composed of a series of sequential events of chromosomal segregation, collectively referred to as mitosis. Mitosis is one of two types of nuclear division that occurs in vegetative cells during asexual reproduction, in order to increase the number of cells in the population. The other type of nuclear division is meiosis, which is observed in germ cells during gamete production in sexual reproduction.

The mitotic phase is called the M phase of the cell cycle. Eukaryotic chromosomes replicate during the S phase of the interface, which is the first phase of the cell cycle. The interface is followed by phase M. Replicated chromosomes contain two sister chromatids joined by their centromeres. Two types of mitosis can be identified between organisms: open mitosis and closed mitosis. During open mitosis In animals, the nuclear envelope breaks down to separate chromosomes. But in fungi, chromosomes separate in the intact nucleus, which is called closed mitosis.

Karyokinesis mechanism

Replicated chromosomes are tightly wound by chromosomal condensation, exhibiting short, thick and wire-like structures during the interface. Its centromeres are also attached to kinetochores, which is an important type of protein in the nuclear division. The proteins required for cell division are synthesized during the interface, and cell components, including organelles, increase their number.

The mitotic division is carried out through four sequential phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the condensed chromosomes line up in the equatorial plane of the cell with the help of a spindle forming apparatus. The spindle apparatus consists of three components: spindle microtubules, kinetochore microtubules, and kinetochore protein complexes. Kinetochore protein complexes are assembled with the centromeres of each chromosome. All microtubules in a cell are controlled by two centrosomes arranged at opposite poles of the cell, forming the spindle apparatus. The Kinetochore microtubules of each pole bind to the centromere through the kinetochore protein complex.

During metaphase, the kinetochore microtubules contract, aligning the individual bivalent chromosomes in the cellular equator. The tension is generated in the centromere by additional contracting of kinetochore microtubules during anaphase. This tension leads to the cleavage of the cohesin protein complexes in the centromere, separating the two sister chromatids, producing two-child chromosomes. During telophase, these children’s chromosomes are attracted to the opposite poles by the contraction of the kinetochore microtubules.

What is cytokinesis?

Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm into two daughter cells, along with the two-child nuclei, the organelles, and the cytoplasm. During the eukaryotic cell cycle, cytokinesis is followed by karyokinesis. The process of approximately equal division of the cytoplasm is called symmetric cytokinesis. On the contrary, during ovogenesis, the ovule consists of almost all the organelles and the cytoplasm of the precursor germ cell, the gonocytes. Tissue cells such as the liver and skeletal muscle omit cytokinesis when producing multinucleated cells.

In mitotic division, daughter cells enter the interface after completing cytokinesis. In the meiotic division, gametes are used to complete sexual reproduction after completing cytokinesis by merging with the other type of gametes in the same species.

Mechanism of cytokinesis.

The main difference between plant cells and cytokinesis of animal cells is the formation of a new cell wall that surrounds the daughter cells in plants. In-plant cells, a cell plate is formed in the middle of the stem cell with the help of microtubules and vesicles. Phragmoplast is the microtubule matrix, which supports and guides the formation of a cell plate. Vesicles containing proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids are trafficked to the middle zone of the phragmoplast by microtubules. The vesicles fuse with microtubules, forming a tubular-vesicular network. Deposition of cell wall components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin leads to cell plate maturation. This cell plate grows towards the cell membrane (centrifugal).

In animal cells, a cleavage groove is formed between the two daughter cells. Excision groove formation begins at the edges of the cell (centripetal) in the cytokinesis of animal cells. Therefore, the formation of half of the body can only be identified in the cytokinesis of animal cells. The cytokinesis of animal cells is tightly regulated by signal transduction pathways. ATP is necessary for the contraction of actin and myosin II proteins.

Difference between karyokinesis and cytokinesis

Definition

Karyokinesis: The nuclear division is known as karyokinesis.

Cytokinesis: The division of the cytoplasm is known as cytokinesis.

In cell division

Karyokinesis: Karyokinesis is the initial step in cell division.

Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis is the final step in cell division.

Function

Karyokinesis: The nucleus of the cell is divided into two child nuclei during karyokinesis.

Cytokinesis: The cytoplasm of the stem cell is divided into two daughter cells that cure cytokinesis.

Correspondence

Karyokinesis: During karyokinesis, the child chromosomes are divided into two child nuclei.

Cytokinesis: During cytokinesis, two-child nuclei divide into two daughter cells.

Distribution

Karyokinesis: During karyokinesis, equitable distribution of genetic material occurs.

Cytokinesis: During cytokinesis, an approximately equal distribution of cell organelles occurs along with the cytoplasm.

Complexity

Karyokinesis: Caryokinesis is a sequential process that involves the complex segregation of genetic material.

Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis is a comparatively simple process, which involves the approximately equal distribution of cytoplasm.

Events

Karyokinesis: Spindle formation and chromosome movement occur during karyokinesis.

Cytokinesis:  The formation of a cell plate or excision groove occurs during cytokinesis.

Other names

Karyokinesis: Karyokinesis is generally known as the mitotic division.

Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis is known as the cytoplasmic division in both mitotic and meiotic cell divisions.

Sequence

Karyokinesis: Caryokinesis is sometimes followed by cytokinesis. In mitosis, karyokinesis is followed by cytokinesis. But, in meiosis 1, karyokinesis is followed by another karyokinesis, not cytokinesis.

Cytokinesis: Cytokinesis does not occur without karyokinesis.

conclusion

Cryokinesis and cytokinesis are two steps in cell division. Karyokinesis is also known as mitosis. During mitosis, the replicated chromosomes in the parental nucleus are also divided into two child nuclei through several sequential events, known as phases. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are the four phases of nuclear division. Equal segregation of chromosomes in the parental nucleus into two child nuclei is ensured by the spindle apparatus. Cryokinesis is followed by cytokinesis in the mitotic division. In-plant cells, the cytoplasm of the stem cell is divided by the formation of a cell plate in the center of the stem cell. In animal cells, a cleavage groove is formed by the plasma membrane, which separates the two daughter cells.

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