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CELL BIOLOGY

What is Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia?

Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia is that Hypertrophy, as is well known, refers to the increase in cell size, which can be divided into sarcoplasmic (increase in the size of non-contractile elements) or sarcomeric (increase in size of contractile elements). Although both occur simultaneously as an adaptation to the exercise of strength, one or the other will be given to a greater extent depending on the type of training we follow.Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia

However, you are likely to be less familiar with the concept of hyperplasia, which refers to an increase in the number of cells or fibers from existing ones.

It is true that the most compelling data supporting hyperplasia arise from animal studies; But, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this multiplication in humans are unknown, there is some evidence that demonstrates that the number of muscle fibers can increase after birth as a result of training.

Data in humans

Directly counting human muscle fibers is complex and invasive. Therefore, most studies that analyze hyperplasia in trained subjects are indirect. All of them revolve around muscle measurements in athletes (bodybuilders, weightlifters, swimmers …) versus “normal” subjects of the same age range. The results showed that:

  • The muscle perimeters (set of muscle fibers) were greater in athletes.
  • Looking at small groups of muscle fibers, it turned out that their size was very similar between athletes and non-athletes.

Thus, the size of the muscle fibers being more or less similar and the perimeters greater in athletes; It is postulated that they should have a greater number of fibers.

Therefore, according to the researchers, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia complement each other so that, first, the size of the muscle fiber (hypertrophy) increased; and then, they experienced secondary hyperplasia.

But, in response to what kind of training?

Extrapolating the data in animals along with the evidence in humans, it has reached the point of establishing that the main cause of muscle hyperplasia is the longitudinal tearing of muscle fibers (“fiber splitting”) related to eccentric training performed with high loads of training.

A muscle can produce more fibers if it is subjected to the appropriate stimulus, although in this case, unlike hypertrophy, there must be a very predominant overload of high mechanical stress (quasi-injurious, according to many authors), followed by a period of regeneration. In addition, this overload should be carried out by supramaximal eccentric contractions (> 100% 1RM) since it is in this phase that the greatest damage is done to the muscle fiber.

In response to this stimulus, there are two main response mechanisms, as shown on the sides of this photo:

Left side: A supported hypothesis is those muscle fibers, upon reaching a critical size from which further increases in size would compromise the cell’s ability to obtain nutrients, begin to divide and thus increase the total number of muscle fibers.

  1. In the following image, the fiber hypertrophied to a maximum point (“B”, marked with an asterisk) begins to experience cracks (see arrow).
  2. From that moment, one fiber begins to divide into smaller ones (“fiber splitting”), but whose joint size would exceed that of the initial muscle fiber.

The right side of the first image (the main mechanism): The other adaptive mechanism occurs by the activation and proliferation of satellite cells. Satellite cells are involved in the regeneration of skeletal muscle in such a way that they are activated in response to microscopic muscle damage resulting from training. These new cells can donate their nucleus to an existing muscle fiber causing hypertrophy, or on the other hand, differentiate from another fiber because it requires excessive repair and thus forms a new fiber (i.e., hyperplasia).

Can I get it

Probably, the average person who goes to the gym is not going to cause hyperplasia … but there are exceptions. Young subjects (<40-45 years *), experienced, with a high degree of hypertrophy and a high percentage of type II fibers can achieve this through a training protocol oriented to it, as the example given below (based on periodization by movements: thrusts/sun. Hip/tractions/sun. Knee).

* With age, the size (not the number) of type II fibers decreases, which are the ones with the greatest capacity to increase their size and thus stimulate possible hyperplasia. In addition to being one of the main reasons why strength is also lost as we get older, it explains why young subjects are more likely to increase the number of muscle fibers.

Even so, don’t forget that performing a controlled eccentric phase during training for most goals is essential, and not just for muscle growth.

Periodization example

Based on the pure eccentric method of González Badillo and Gorostiaga (2002), in my personal opinion, it is quite demanding and should not be done more than 2 times a year, taking into account that it can be extended for 2 months.

The stiffness and stiffness derived from performing only eccentric could functionally incapacitate to follow a “normal” life, therefore it is proposed to insert unique sessions of eccentric training with unique sessions of hypertrophy throughout the entire mesocycle.

The weekly frequency should decrease in relation to a period of hypertrophy. This is difficult to establish in general, since it would have to be individualized according to the factors of each person, but in any case, after a session of pure eccentric training, 2 days off (even if active), it could be advisable for the maximum results.

We could also indicate that in machines and pulleys it is easier to perform the eccentric work, but with free weights, an assistant ( spotter ) may be necessary.

Microcycle 1

DAY 1: SESSION 1 OF PURE EXCENTRIC TRAINING – PUSHES
IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
105% 1RM5 in multi-articular 3-4 in mono-articular2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

Exercises:

  • Flat bench press with bar.
  • Military press sitting with bar (place insurance).
  • Bottoms in parallel with ballast.

The session can be completed with pure non-eccentric abdominal work since this type of methodology can affect the abdominal content (liver, pancreas, intestine …).

DAY 2: SESSION 1 OF HABITUAL HYPERTROPHY TRAINING – DOMINANTES CADERA

(Training methodology that everyone usually follows for hypertrophy)

DAY 3: SESSION 2 OF PURE EXCENTRIC TRAINING – TRACTIONS
IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
105% 1RM5 in multi-articular 3-4 in mono-articular2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

Exercises:

  • Rowing with one hand. It can be done with a dumbbell or, in this case, it may be safer in a lever machine.
  • Dominated with ballast, helping in the concentric phase.
  • Alternate biceps curl with dumbbells on an incline bench (“only” 3 sets/arm).

The session can be completed with pure non-eccentric abdominal work since this type of methodology can affect the abdominal content (liver, pancreas, intestine …).

DAY 4: HYPERTROPHY HABITUAL TRAINING SESSION 2 – DOMINANTES rodilla

(Training methodology that everyone usually follows for hypertrophy)

DAY 5: SESSION 3 OF HABITUAL HYPERTROPHY TRAINING – PUSHES

(Training methodology that everyone usually follows for hypertrophy)

DAY 6: SESSION 3 OF PURE EXCENTRIC TRAINING – DOMINANTES CADERA
IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
105% 1RM5 in multi-articular 3-4 in mono-articular2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

Exercises:

  • Deadweight removing the bar from the rack and starting the movement with the eccentric phase (towards the ground). To upload it to the rack, the help of 2 partners on the sides would be necessary.
  • Inverted hyperextension with specific bench ballast to one leg.
  • Femoral curl standing, lying or sitting. Although the movement is not dominant in the hip, the hamstrings are the main knee flexors. Having also an extensor function on the hip, it is interesting to include it on this day to work both patterns of the same muscle group.

The session can be completed with pure non-eccentric abdominal work since this type of methodology can affect the abdominal content (liver, pancreas, intestine …).

DAY 7: HABITUAL HYPERTROPHY TRAINING SESSION 4 – TRACTIONS

(Training methodology that everyone usually follows for hypertrophy)

DAY 8: PURE EXCENTRIC TRAINING SESSION 4 – DOMINANTES RODILLA
IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
105% 1RMIndicated in each exercise2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

Exercises:

  • Squat (3 series). For the ascending phase of the movement, the help of 2 partners on the sides would be necessary.
  • Leg press (6 series). An exercise where you can apply this methodology in a safer and more localized way than in squats. Therefore, it takes on greater importance.
  • Unilateral quadriceps extensions (3 series). Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia

The session can be completed with pure non-eccentric abdominal work since this type of methodology can affect the abdominal content (liver, pancreas, intestine …).

Microcycle 2

The methodology to follow, along with the exercises, is the same as in microcycle 1, but with an increase in intensity. They will not be specifically addressed every day or session, but the load factors would look like this:

IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
115% 1RM5 in multi-articular 3-4 in mono-articular2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

It is advised, and it would be intelligent, to reduce the load (especially intensity) on the days of “usual hypertrophy training”. Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia

Microcycle 3

Likewise, the methodology to be followed, along with the exercises, would be the same as in the previous ones, but with an increase in intensity, which will reach its peak. They will not be specifically addressed every day or session, but the load factors would look like this:

IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
130% 1RM5 in multi-articular 3-4 in mono-articular2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

It is advised again to reduce the load (especially intensity) on the days of “usual hypertrophy training”. Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia

Microcycle 4

Likewise, the methodology to be followed, along with the exercises, would be the same as in the previous ones, but now with a decrease in the load with respect to the microcycle 3. They will not be specifically addressed every day or session, but the load factors would look like this:

IntensityEffective series per exerciseRepRest seriesEccentric tempoConcentric tempo
120% 1RM4 in multi-articular3 in mono-articular2-44-5 min3-5 secMaximum, with help.

It is advisable to maintain the load as in microcycle 3 on the days of “usual hypertrophy training”. In case of not supporting it, the rest could be reduced or increased. Difference Between Hypertrophy And Hyperplasia.

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