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what is botany in science

Botany is the scientific study of plants, or multicellular organisms, that perform photosynthesis. As a branch of biology, botany is sometimes referred to as botany or plant sciences. Botany includes a wide range of scientific sub-disciplines that study structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, disease, environment and evolution in plants.

Importance of studying botany

Plant studies are important because they are an essential part of life on Earth, where food, oxygen, fuel, medicines, and fibers are created that allow for other forms of life. Through photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide, a waste product generated by most animals and greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.

As with other life forms, plants can be studied at many different levels. The first is the molecular level, which is concerned with the biochemical, molecular and genetic functions of plants. The other is cellular level, tissue and organic (a separate structure of the cell with specialized function), which studies the anatomy and physiology of plants; and at the community and population level, which involves interactions within species, with other species and with the environment.

A brief history of botany

Historically, botanists studied any organism that was not an animal. Although fungi, algae, and bacteria are now members of other kingdoms, according to the currently accepted classification system, they are still usually studied in the introductory botany classes.

  • Greeks were first to write about the plants in a scientific way. Empedocles thought, In the fifth century that plants had not only a spirit but also had a healthy mind. Aristotle believed plants were ranked among animals and non-living things.
  • Theophrastus, the student of Aristotle, wrote two books on plants that were still used in the fifteenth century.
  • The Swedish doctor who became botanist Carolus Linnaeus is the father of the systematic naming system, which he invented in the 18th century and is still used to give scientific names to all species, plants, and others.
  • Plants have always been suitable to study scientifically because they did not pose the same ethical dilemmas as studying animals or humans.
  • Austrian monk Gregor Mendel wrote the first inheritance laws, a set of basic principles for the transfer of genetic traits from mother to child in the 1850s after crossing the pea plant in his garden.
  • Nearly a century later, Barbara McClintock discovered “gene jumps” and other details about inheritance by studying maize plants.

Branches of botany

  • Agricultural Engineering and Crop Science
    This is an agricultural science that deals with field crop production and soil management.
  • Phycology
    This is the study of algae.
  • bacteriology
    This is a study of bacteria (which are also part of microbiology).
  • Bryology
    This is the study of mosses and liverworts.
  • mycology
    This is the study of fungi.

    Branches of Botany
    Branches of Botany and their relationship with other sciences
  • Plant Anatomy and Physiology
    This is a study of the structure and function of plants.
  • Plant cell biology
    This is a study of cell structure and function.
  • Plant Genetics
    This is the study of genetics in plants.
  • Plant pathology
    This is the study of diseases in plants.
  • Pteridology
    This is the study of ferns and their relatives.
  • Paleobotany    This is the study of plant fossils.

Job opportunities for botany graduates

Bachelor of Botany prepares students for professional or postgraduate work. It also provides a degree in botany as a basis for further study and occupation in applied fields of plant diseases, forestry, crop production, horticulture, genetics, plant breeding, plant biotechnology, and environmental monitoring and control.

Among the jobs available to a person who enjoys the outdoors, there are positions as an environmental expert, a classification expert, an environmentalist, a forest explorer, and a plant manufacturer.

A person with a mathematical background may find that biophysics, developmental botany, genetics, modeling, or systems environment are exciting fields. A person who is interested in chemistry may become a physiologist, biochemist, or molecular biologist.

People are fascinated by microorganisms often choosing microbiology, phycology or fungi. On a larger scale, the design of horticulture and ornamental plants requires technical use of plant form and color. A person concerned about food supplies in the world may study plant diseases (diseases) or plant breeding.