Parts of Central Nervous System

The nervous system is responsible for receiving and emitting signals and stimuli throughout the body. It is considered the most complex structure of all those working in the human body. This structure of our body differs in two major systems: the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System ( SNP).Parts of Central Nervous System

The CNS is characterized by being the core of our mental processing, in fact, it is in charge of treating the information that our senses collect so that we can understand it better. Do you want to know more about the Central Nervous System, its functions and parts? Then do not miss this interesting online Psychology article, in it, you will know the functions and parts of the Central Nervous System (CNS).

Parts of the Central Nervous System

We can divide our nervous system into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system (SNP). The Peripheral Nervous System is made up of all the nerves that start from the CNS and extend throughout the body. On the other hand, the Central Nervous System is formed by the brain and spinal cord. In this article, we will focus on the functions and parts of the SNC.

Anatomy of the central nervous system

The CNS is protected by the skull, the spine and the membranes called meninges. It is formed by the brain and spinal cord, composed of millions of cells connected to each other, the famous neurons.

Next, we offer you a simple scheme so you can see how the Central Nervous System is divided.

  • How does the SNC work? If you want to know what are the functions of the Central Nervous System, we recommend you continue reading this article.

Parts and functions of the brain

The brain is the upper part of the CNS, popularly known as the brain, this part of the Nervous System is made up of other regions (besides the brain).

Brain Anatomy:

This area is protected by the skull. At the anatomical level, the brain is composed of the following parts:

  • Brain
  • The cerebellum
  • Brain stem

These parts and their functions are explained below.

1. The brain

It is the best-known organ of the central nervous system. The brain has numerous functions but in general, it is responsible for processing the information that comes from the five senses, as well as controlling movement, emotions, memory, cognition, and learning. It is the center of intellectual functions.

Anatomically, the brain is divided into two parts: Telencephalon and diencephalon.

The Telencephalon corresponds to the two cerebral hemispheres: the right and the left, communicated by nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The outer part of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex formed by gray matter and white matter.

The function of white matter is the transmission of brain information to the rest of the human body and the function of gray matter is related to the processing of information and therefore also of reasoning.

On the one hand, the left hemisphere is responsible for the movement and sensory perception of the right part of our body, logical reasoning, linguistic intelligence, and mathematical ability. On the other hand, the right hemisphere is responsible for the movements and perception of the left side, the vision in three dimensions, creativity, and imagination.

Four lobes are identified in the cortex of each hemisphere:

  • The frontal lobe, which controls voluntary movements and is related to the ability to plan, with intelligence and personality.
  • The occipital lobe, which integrates visual information.
  • The temporal lobe, which integrates auditory information, memory, and emotions.
  • The parietal lobe, which integrates the tactile information of the whole body and intervenes in the sensation of balance.

The Diencephalon is composed of different anatomical parts: hypothalamus, thalamus, and epithalamus.

  • The thalamus receives the sensations collected by other parts of the CNS and distributes them to other regions of the cerebral cortex.
  • The main function of the hypothalamus is to regulate the balance of our body and basic needs such as, for example, the intake of food, drink and the instinct for reproduction, also controlling the endocrine system.
  • Finally, the epithalamus belongs to the limbic system, related to emotions and intuition. It also contains the pineal gland, which regulates the states of sleep and wakefulness.

2. The cerebellum

It bridges spinal cord stimuli to reach the brain. Some of its functions are as follows: regulate the heartbeat, blood pressure, balance, and respiratory function. Regulates muscle movements such as running, walking, writing … and also maintains muscle tone and body posture.

3. Brain stem or brain stem

Located on the spinal cord, the brain stem is divided into three anatomical regions: the bump and the midbrain.

  • The medulla is the part of the brain that joins the spinal cord. In the bulb, ascending (sensory), descending (motor), and gray matter fascicles that connect the spinal cord to the brain are located. These regulate vital functions such as respiratory function, heartbeat, and vascular diameter. It also controls vomiting, coughing, sneezing, hiccups and swallowing.
  • The annular protrusion or brainstem bridge regulates respiratory movements and receives sensory information of taste and tactile information of the face and neck.
  • Finally, the midbrain controls the movements of the eyes, as well as the contraction of the pupil. Participates in the subconscious regulation of muscle activity.

Next, we show you a complete scheme with the main parts of the brain:

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