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GENERAL BIOLOGY

Diseases of Endocrine System

diseases of Endocrine System are Although the pathologies of this system can be many, usually, these have their origin in an excessive or deficient function of the gland, according to which the hyper or hypo prefix is ​​always added, to indicate the surplus or lack of function.

If the pituitary gland fails, which is the most important of the endocrine glands, hormonal alterations also occur at the level of the thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads.Diseases of Endocrine System

The existence of tumors in the pituitary gland can generate an excess of somatotropin, one of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. This anomaly causes gigantism in young people and acromegaly in adults, which is manifested by gradual enlargement of the hands and feet.

Hypopituitarism causes an advanced level of Simmonds disease, which causes progressive weight loss, lack of energy, poor menstruation, and psychic depression. The lack of pituitary function also causes dwarfism, which is characterized by the lack of physical development at height.

Thyroid in disrepair

When this gland does not exist or works poorly, there is the talk of hypothyroidism. If it is an absence, a condition known as cretinism occurs, which causes mental retardation and dwarfism. If there is an incomplete functioning, there is weight gain, lack of energy and also a delay in mental ability.

On the contrary, when the thyroid activity is excessive, hyperthyroidism is talked about, a situation that can cause Basedow’s disease, whose characteristic symptoms are exophthalmia (bulging eyes), pronounced weight loss, nervousness, irritability and, occasionally, Heart problems.

Parathyroid problems

When hyperparathyroidism occurs, the amount of calcium that circulates through the bloodstream increases, which can also be seen in the urine, which can record extremely high rates of this element. This can lead to the formation of kidney stones and a loss of calcium from the bones. diseases of the Endocrine System

If the inverse phenomenon occurs, that is, hypoparathyroidism, the decrease in calcium in the blood and the increase in phosphorus cause tetany, a pathology characterized by difficulty in muscle contraction, numbness in the extremities and cramps.

Mellitus diabetes

The organism can also suffer alterations if the pancreas suffers any ailment, particularly its islets of Langerhans, or if it is removed. This leads to an increase in blood sugar and urine, resulting in diabetes mellitus. diseases of the Endocrine System

On the other hand, since there is an excess of blood sugar, due to lack of insulin, the muscles do not supply enough to use glucose. For this reason, there is an exaggerated increase in urine, to keep the excess sugar in solution.

Adrenal defective

The excessive function of the adrenal glands gives rise to Cushing’s disease, which may be due to a surplus of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, or pituitary failure. It is typical of adults and is characterized by obvious obesity on the face, chest, and abdomen, in addition to stippled skin, contusions on the extremities, high blood pressure, and heart failure.

When there is hypofunction, Adisson disease occurs, caused by the destruction of the adrenal cortex due to a problem of autoimmunity. Its symptoms are marked lack of appetite, weight loss, feeling of increasing tiredness, weakness, and anemia.

Gonad Conditions

These organs can suffer alterations as a result of a malfunction of the pituitary gland or of their own glands.

In the case of men, the decrease in the function of the testicle causes male hypogonadism, which can cause, in turn, the eunuchism, whose consequences are: high stature, absence of hair on face and body, acute tone of voice, poor muscle and genital development of tiny size.

For women, alterations of the sexual glands are closely linked to disorders of menstrual cycles, since these are the effect of the interaction of hormones and similar chemicals, produced in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries. The main symptom of any dysfunction in the production of sex hormones is the irregularity of the menstrual periods or their absence, an anomaly that in the latter case is called amenorrhea.

If the pituitary is the cause of the alteration, changes in other hormones made by it will surely occur.

Too much hair

Although hypertrichosis occurs in many men, that is, the appearance of hair in areas that normally should not come out, and that sometimes gives them the appearance of “werewolves”, this is not caused by some disorder hormonal

However, in the case of hirsutism, some women have an exaggerated development of hair, which is thick, pigmented and long. In addition, this affects places in the body that normally have very little hair growth (hairs), such as the chest, abdomen, back, arms, thighs, chin and on the upper lip. Here there are, among others, hormonal factors, because these areas of the body are very sensitive to the action of androgens, hormones that stimulate the formation of male sexual characteristics. Accordingly, this phenomenon would occur as a result of an increase in testosterone, the body’s main androgen.

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