25 Branches Of Biology A to Z List With Definitions Meanings & Examples

Branches of Biology from A to Z

In this post we will discuss various Branches of biology from A to Z. From this point of view general statistics knowledge is very important in any competition and biology sub-divisions are an important aspect of general statistics knowledge. Every year there are one or two questions that arise in various biology related competitive exams like UPSC, Bank, SSC, PSC etc. Therefore, all aspirants should know about the definition of branches of various fields of biology. 25 branches of biology from a to z

branches of biology from a to zPOST INCLUDES:
  • Branches of Biology from A to Z
  • 25 Branches of Biology
  • All Branches of Biology
  • Branches of Biology and Their Fathers 
  • Why Study Different Branches of Biology?
  • Careers in Biology
  • Popular Universities for Biology

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Stay with us to learn about 25 main branches and divisions of biological science which are famous and encountered by us, mostly in our daily life. 25 branches of biology from a to z

Biologists study the structure, composition,  growth, metabolism origin, geographical distribution, and evolution of living organisms.  Three main divisions of biology are Microbiology, Botany and zoology under the umbrella of which many branches and sub-branches come. Here in this topic, we will cover definitions and examples of main branches such as morphology, anatomy, genetics, embryology, biotechnology, pharmacology, parasitology, physiology, etc. Biology overlaps with physics, chemistry, math, economics, and forms biophysics, biochemistry, biomathematics, bioeconomics respectively. These interdisciplinary branches will also be discussed here. 

  • Zoology 

Branch of Zoology

  1. Protozoology
  2. Ichthyology
  3. Mammalogy.
  4. Ornithology
  5. Entomology
  6. Herpetology
  • Botany

Branch of Botany

  1. Taxonomy
  2. Anatomy
  3. Pathology
  4. Genetics
  5. Physiology
  6. Ecology
  7. Palaeology
  8. Embryology
  9. Morphology
  10. Histology
  • Microbiology 25 branches of biology from a to z

Branch of Microbiology

Microbiology is divided into two branches: (i) pure branch and (ii) applied branch. The categories are listed below.

(i) Pure Science Branches of Microbiology
  1. Immunology
  2. Bacteriology
  3. Mycology 
  4. Genetics
  5. Protozoology
  6. Parasitology
  7. Algology
(ii) Applied Branches of Biology
  1. Epidemiology
  2. Medical Microbiology
  3. Air Microbiology
  4. Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  5. Aquatic Microbiology
  6. Industrial Microbiology
  7. Agriculture Microbiology
  8. Food Microbiology
  9. Soil Microbiology

What is Biology? 25 branches of biology from a to z

We know that our universe consists of stars, planets, suns and our world is in a small corner of the universe. I am asking the question of what made our world so beautiful, so the answer would be life. There is only life on earth and biology is the study of life. 25 branches of biology from a to z

The word biology comes from two Greek words, bio, meaning life, and logos, meaning learning. But if we talk about life, it does not mean that we understand only people, we also understand trees, animals, birds and various microorganisms. Next, we discuss the various branches of biology from A to Z and sub-Branches of Biology A to Z. 25 branches of biology from a to z

branches of biology from a to z
25 branches of biology from a to z

Branches of biology from a to z 25 branches of biology from a to z

A 25 branches of biology from a to z
Anatomy: The study of the structure of living things and their parts
Astrobiology: The Study of the Living Universe
Biotechnology: The study of technologies related to biology
Botany: The scientific study of plants
Biochemistry: The study of chemical processes in or related to living organisms
Biophysics: The study of physical processes and phenomena in living organisms
Bionics: The study of mechanical systems that function as living things or as part of a living organism
Bioinformatics: The study of interpreting biological information using computer science.
Cell Biology: The Study of Cell Structure and Function
Chemical Biology: The study of the use of chemistry to solve biological problems
Computational biology: the study of using biological information to develop algorithms for understanding biological systems 25 branches of biology from a to z
Conservation Biology: The Study of Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity on Earth
Chronobiology: the study of the effects of time on biological events, as well as internal biological rhythms and clocks
Developmental Biology: The study of the processes of growth and development in plants and animals

E 25 branches of biology from a to z

Evolutionary Biology: The study of evolutionary processes and the diversification and adaptation of life over time
Ecology: The study of how organisms and how they interact with their environment
Environmental Biology: The study of evolution, habitats, and adaptations of living organisms
Genetics: The study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living things
Geobiology: the study of how physical, chemical, and biological processes affect each other in natural habitats
Gerontology: The study of aging, its physical, mental, social, psychological and cultural effects, etc.
Human Biology: The study of the human species, its evolution, genetics, heredity, anatomy, and more
Human genetics: the study of the human genome and the transmission of genes from one generation to another
Immunology: The study of the immune system of all organisms
Lichenology: The study of lichens
Marine Biology: The study of marine organisms and marine life
Mycology: The study of fungi
Microbiology: The study of microorganisms, that is, tiny life forms 25 branches of biology from a to z
Molecular biology: the study of the chemical structures of molecules and biological processes
Neurobiology: The study of the nervous system and cellular functions
Nutrition: The study of foods, their nutrients, and their effects on health and disease
Pathology: The study of disease or injury
Physiology: The study of how the human body works
Paleobiology: The Study of Applied Biology in the Life Sciences Earth Sciences Paleontology
Physiology: The Study of Algae
Parasitology: The study of parasites, their hosts, and their relationships 25 branches of biology from a to z
Plant Physiology: The study of the functions and behavior of plants in terms of their internal structures and functions
Photobiology: The study of the beneficial or harmful effects of light on living organisms
Radiobiology: The study of ionizing radiation and its interaction with humans
Structural biology: the study of the structure of biological molecules
Soil Biology: The study of living organisms in soil
Systems Biology: The Study of Biological Systems
Taxonomy: The study of naming, classifying, organizing, and describing living organisms
Virology: The study of viruses as well as viral diseases
Zoology: The study of the plant kingdom

Here is the list of 25 main branches of Biology

1- Zoology

2- Botany

3- Microbiology


5- Anatomy 25 branches of biology from a to z


7- Cell Biology

8- Physiology

9- Genetics

10- Embryology


12- Paleontology

13- Environmental Biology

14- Sociobiology

15- Parasitology

16- Biotechnology

17- Immunology

18- Entomology

19- Pharmacology 25 branches of biology from a to z

20- Molecular biology

21- Biophysics

22- Biochemistry

23- Biomathematics

24- Biogeography

25- Bioeconomics

Divisions of biology

The umbrella of biology mainly covers three vast fields which are called divisions of biological sciences.  These are defined as follows. 25 branches of biology from a to z

1 ZOOLOGY (/zuˈɒlədʒi, zoʊ-/) This division of biology deals with the study of animals. For Example Wild animals, farm animals, pets, etc

 2- BOTANY (/BAWT-(ə)-nee/)  This division of biology deals with the study of plants. 

For Example, The study of your favorite plants i.e. rose, maple tree, onion, etc. Plants may be herbs, shrubs, trees, creepers, flowering, non-flowering, vegetable plants, fruits plants, etc.

3- MICROBIOLOGY (/MIKE-rō-bī-AWL-ə-jee/)  This division of biology deals with the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, microscopic fungus, algae, etc.

Main branches of biology

branches of biology from a to z
branches of biology from a to z

1- Morphology: (/mɔːˈfɒlədʒi/) This branch deals with the study of form, size, shape, and structure of living organisms. e.g. skin color, height, the shape of limbs, etc.

2- Anatomy (/ə-NAT-ə-mee/)  The study of internal structures of living organisms by dissection is called anatomy e.g. internal structure of the kidney. 25 branches of biology from a to z

3- Histology (/hist-TAWL-ə-jee/)  The microscopic study of structural tissues of organisms is called histology e.g. study of muscles, adipose, connective tissue, etc.

4- Cell biology: The study of the structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division. e.g. muscle cell.

5- Physiology (/fizz-ee-AWL-ə-jee/)  This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms e.g. working of muscles. 25 branches of biology from a to z

DNA molecule, responsible for heredity
DNA, a heredity molecule. It controls heredity by nature’s secret codes hidden in the nucleotide sequence.

6- Genetics  (/dʒəˈnɛtɪks/) The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics. Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other e.g. Blood group genetics. 25 branches of biology from a to z

Embryology. figure showing the stages of chick development
chick development stages from egg to fully developed chick in 21 days. differentiation and organogenesis can be clearly seen

7- Embryology (/em-bree-AWL-ə-jee/)  It is the study of the development of an embryo to new individual e.g. study of various stages of chick development.

8- Taxonomy (/takˈsɒnəmi/) It is the study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and subgroups. e.g. identification of the taxonomic position of a newly discovered animal species in an area. 25 branches of biology from a to z

9- Paleontology (/pæl.i.ɒnˈtɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms e.g. estimating the age of the dinosaur’s skeleton. 

10- Environmental biology: It deals with the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. For Example, the effect of pollution on human health or human activities increases pollution on the planet. 25 branches of biology from a to z

mongooses mother protecting her pups , a best example of sociobiology
Mongoose mother can put even her own life at risk while protecting her pups 25 branches of biology from a to z

11- Socio-biology: This branch deals with the study of social behavior of the animals that make societies.For Example: protective behavior of mothers to their offspring, killing of cubs by a male lion to reduce competition in their offspring.

12- parasitology (/pare-ə-sə-TAWL-ə-jee/)  This branch deals with the study of parasites e.g. study of mosquito, bacteria. worms harming the bodies of animals are all parasites. Plants also have other parasitic plants i.e. Cuscuta.  25 branches of biology from a to z

Gene splicing producing rDNA.

The process by which the DNA of an organism is cut and a gene, perhaps from another organism, is inserted, is called Gene splicing. It is often used in industry to allow single-celled organisms to produce useful products, such as human insulin.


13- Biotechnology (/baɪ.əʊ.tekˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/) It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind. Its best example is using bacteria for producing human hormones such as Insulin, growth hormones, etc. 25 branches of biology from a to z

14- Immunology (/IM-yə-NAWL-ə-jee/)  It is the study of the immune system of animals, which defends the body against invading microbes. For Example: How White blood cells engulf foreign particles is actually an immunity study.

Red cotton bug, a serious pest of cotton
Dysdercus cingulatus is a true bug generally called the red cotton stainer. It is a dangerous sucking pest of cotton mainly and attacks other plants as well, such as okra, citrus, and jute, etc. Adults and older nymphs of this bug feed on the emerging bolls and the cotton seeds, also transmitting cotton staining fungi that deteriorate lint quality.  25 branches of biology from a to z

15- Entomology (/en.təˈmɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of insects. For Example: If someone wounder why ants form Que and how honeybees search for insects, all this comes in Entomology. 

16- Pharmacology (/fɑː.məˈkɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of drugs (medicines) and their effects on the systems of the human body. For Example: If a doctor is studying the effects of cinchona bark extract on malaria patients, he is studying pharmacology.

17-Molecular biology (biochemistry/ˌbaɪ.əʊˈkem.ɪ.stri) 

It deals with the study of the molecules of life. For Example Study of the role of water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids molecules in maintaining life. 25 branches of biology from a to z

Interdisciplinary branches of biology

Well: “Biology is not as simple”

It also makes links with the other disciplines of science, thus giving birth to new biology disciplines or branches. This enables us to understand biology in a better way in light of the principles of the other sciences. Branches that are formed due to interlinking of biology with other fields are following. 

1- Biophysics: It deals with the study of the principles of physics, which are applicable to biological phenomena. For example limbs of animals work on the principle of the lever in physics.

2- Biochemistry: It deals with the study of the chemistry of different compounds and processes occurring in living organisms. For Example Study of photosynthesis and respiration.

3- Biomathematics / Biometry: It deals with the study of biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools. For Example: “To analyze the data of the animal’s population”.

4- Biogeography: It deals with the study of the occurrence and distribution of different species of living organisms in different geographical regions of the world. For Example, Acacia is found in the desert. 25 branches of biology from a to z

5- Bioeconomics: It deals with the study of organisms from an economical point of view.  For Example the cost or profit value of the yield of wheat.

Related links: 25 branches of biology from a to z

  • 25 branches of biology and their definitions 
  • 25 Branches Of Biology A to Z List With Definitions Meanings & Examples 25 branches of biology from a to z
  • “Perfect list” of 25 main branches of biology with definitions and examples
  • Three divisions of biology are microbiology, botany, and zoology. Main branches of biology are morphology, anatomy, genetics, paleontology, 25 branches of biology from a to z

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