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GENERAL BIOLOGY

“Perfect list” of 25 main branches of biology with definitions and examples

The branches of biology

 

branches of biology and their definitions
Main branches of biology and their definitions

Main divisions and Branches of biology

Biologists study the structure, composition,  growth, metabolism origin, geographical distribution, and evolution of living organisms.  Three main divisions of biology are Microbiology, Botany and zoology under the umbrella of which many branches and sub-branches come. Here in this topic, we will cover definitions and examples of main branches such as morphology, anatomy, genetics, embryology, biotechnology, pharmacology, parasitology, physiology, etc. Biology overlaps with physics, chemistry, math, economics, and forms biophysics, biochemistry, biomathematics, bioeconomics respectively. These interdisciplinary branches will also be discussed here. 

                    The topic is still continued………..

Stay with us to learn about 25 main branches and divisions of biological science which are famous and encountered by us, mostly in our daily life.

 Here is the list 25 main branches

 1- Zoology

2- Botany

3- Microbiology

4-Morphology

5- Anatomy

6-Histology

7- Cell Biology

8- Physiology

9- Genetics

10- Embryology

11-Taxonomy

12- Paleontology

13- Environmental Biology

14- Sociobiology

15- Parasitology

16- Biotechnology

17- Immunology

18- Entomology

19- Pharmacology

20- Molecular biology

21- Biophysics

22- Biochemistry

23- Biomathematics

24- Biogeography

25- Bioeconomics

Divisions of biology

The umbrella of biology mainly covers three vast fields which are called divisions of biological sciences.  These are defined as follows.

Farm animals
Animal farming not only enables small farmers self-sufficient for protein food but their sale also provide instant money when needed

1- ZOOLOGY (/zuˈɒlədʒi, zoʊ-/) This division of biology deals with the study of animals. For Example Wild animals, farm animals, pets, etc

 2- BOTANY (/BAWT-(ə)-nee/)  This division of biology deals with the study of plants. 

                 For Example, The study of your favorite plants i.e. rose, maple tree, onion, etc. Plants may be herbs, shrubs, trees, creepers, flowering, non-flowering, vegetable plants, fruits plants, etc.

 

3- MICROBIOLOGY (/MIKE-rō-bī-AWL-ə-jee/)  This division of biology deals with the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, a microscopic fungus, algae, etc.

Main branches of biology

bacterial cells, a best example of microorganism
Pathogenic bacterial cells are seen by microscope in the host organism

1- Morphology: (/mɔːˈfɒlədʒi/) This branch deals with the study of form, size, shape, and structure of living organisms. e.g. skin color, height, the shape of limbs, etc.

2- Anatomy (/ə-NAT-ə-mee/)  The study of internal structures of living organisms by dissection is called anatomy e.g. internal structure of the kidney.

3- Histology (/hist-TAWL-ə-jee/)  The microscopic study of structural tissues of organisms is called histology e.g. study of muscles, adipose, connective tissue, etc.

4- Cell biology: The study of the structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division. e.g. muscle cell.

5- Physiology (/fizz-ee-AWL-ə-jee/)  This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms e.g. working of muscles.

DNA molecule, responsible for heredity
DNA, a heredity molecule. It controls heredity by nature’s secret codes hidden in the nucleotide sequence.

6- Genetics  (/dʒəˈnɛtɪks/) The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics. Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other e.g. Blood group genetics.

Embryology. figure showing the stages of chick development
chick development stages from egg to fully developed chick in 21 days. differentiation and organogenesis can be clearly seen

7- Embryology (/em-bree-AWL-ə-jee/)  It is the study of the development of an embryo to new individual e.g. study of various stages of chick development.

8- Taxonomy (/takˈsɒnəmi/) It is the study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and subgroups. e.g. identification of the taxonomic position of a newly discovered animal species in an area.  

9- Paleontology (/pæl.i.ɒnˈtɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms e.g. estimating the age of the dinosaur’s skeleton. 

10- Environmental biology: It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment. For Example the effect of pollution on human health or human activities which increase pollution on the planet.

mongooses mother protecting her pups , a best example of sociobiology
Mongoose mother can put even her own life at risk while protecting her pups

11- Socio-biology: This branch deals with the study of social behavior of the animals that make societies.For Example: protective behavior of mothers to their offspring, killing of cubs by male lion to reduce competition in their offspring.

12- parasitology (/pare-ə-sə-TAWL-ə-jee/)  This branch deals with the study of parasites e.g. study of mosquito, bacteria. worms harming the bodies of animals are all parasites. Plants also have other parasitic plants i.e. Cuscuta. 

Gene splicing producing rDNA.
The process by which the DNA of an organism is cut and a gene, perhaps from another organism, is inserted, is called Gene splicing. It is often used in industry to allow single-celled organisms to produce useful products, such as human insulin.

13- Biotechnology (/baɪ.əʊ.tekˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/) It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind. Its best example is using bacteria for producing human hormones such as Insulin, growth hormones, etc. 

14- Immunology (/IM-yə-NAWL-ə-jee/)  It is the study of the immune system of animals, which defends the body against invading microbes. For Example: How White blood cells engulf foreign particles is actually an immunity study.

Red cotton bug, a serious pest of cotton
Dysdercus cingulatus is a true bug generally called as the red cotton stainer. It is a dangerous sucking pest of cotton mainly and attacks other plants as well, such as okra, citrus, and jute, etc. Adults and older nymphs of this bug feed on the emerging bolls and the cotton seeds, also transmitting cotton staining fungi which deteriorate lint quality.

15- Entomology (/en.təˈmɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of insects. For Example: If someone wounder why ants form Que and how honeybees search for insects, all this comes in Entomology. 

16- Pharmacology (/fɑː.məˈkɒl.ə.dʒi/) It is the study of drugs (medicines) and their effects on the systems of the human body. For Example: If a doctor is studying the effects of cinchona bark extract on malaria patients, he is studying pharmacology.

17- Molecular biology (biochemistry /ˌbaɪ.əʊˈkem.ɪ.striIt deals with the study of the molecules of life. For Example Study of the role of water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids molecules in maintaining life. 

Interdisciplinary branches of biology

Well: “Biology is not as simple”

It also makes links with the other disciplines of science, thus giving birth to new biology disciplines or branches. This enables us to understand biology in a better way in light of the principles of the other sciences. Branches that are formed due to interlinking of biology with other fields are following. 

1- Biophysics: It deals with the study of the principles of physics, which are applicable to biological phenomena. For example limbs of animals work on the principle of the lever in physics.

2- Biochemistry: It deals with the study of the chemistry of different compounds and processes occurring in living organisms. For Example Study of photosynthesis and respiration.

3- Biomathematics / Biometry: It deals with the study of biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools. For Example: “To analyze the data of the animal’s population”.

4- Biogeography: It deals with the study of the occurrence and distribution of different species of living organisms in different geographical regions of the world. For Example, Acacia is found in the desert.

5- Bioeconomics: It deals with the study of organisms from an economical point of view.  For Example the cost or profit value of the yield of wheat.

 

 

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