Parts of Human Eye: Human eyes are organs responsible for vision and, although they seem simple, they have a series of structures that guarantee the capture of images.
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The eyes are structures responsible for vision . This organ is complex and formed by several parts that guarantee the effective capture of the images. Next, we will further explore the anatomy of the human eye, getting to know more deeply its parts and the function of each of them.
The human eye is formed by a series of elements that act together. There are portions responsible, for example, for allowing the entry of light and for elements capable of transforming the light impulse into an electrical impulse. Among the main parts of the human eye, we can mention:
- Conjunctiva – The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that posteriorly lines the eyelids and covers the anterior surface of the eye up to the cornea;
- Sclera – This portion of the eye corresponds to the so-called “white of the eye” and constitutes an external fibrous support for the insertion of extraocular muscles;
- Cornea – The cornea is the transparent part of the eye, it is located anteriorly and is 10 mm to 11 mm in diameter. It acts as a refractor because it has a refractive index greater than that of air, in addition to guaranteeing protection against microorganisms.
Parts of Human Eye: Main parts of the human eye
- Iris – The iris is the portion that gives color to the eyes and is located in the anterior part of the lens and posterior part of the cornea. This region has important muscles that make it possible to increase or decrease the size of the pupil according to the amount of light in the environment.
- Pupil – The pupil is a region located in the center of the iris and appears as a small dark circle that changes in size. It is an opening through which light enters in order to find the lens.
- Lens – The lens, also called the lens, is a transparent disc rich in protein that divides the eye into two parts: the anterior and the posterior. The anterior portion presents the aqueous humor , which stands out for being a light-colored watery substance. In the posterior portion is the vitreous humor , which is a gelatinous material formed by water, collagen fibers and hyaluronic acid. The lens promotes visual accommodation, as it modifies its shape to ensure greater clarity in vision.
- Retina – The retina is the layer found internally in the eye and stands out for having photoreceptors that are able to capture visual information and send this message to the optic nerve. This means that it is in the retina that light waves are transformed into nerve impulses.In humans, there are two types of photoreceptor cells: cones and rods . Cones are not very sensitive to light, but ensure color vision. Rods, in turn, are not able to distinguish colors, however, they are more sensitive to light, which allows us to have black and white night vision.
- Optic nerve – This nerve is responsible for ensuring that electrical impulses from the eye are taken to the specific area of the brain that performs their interpretation.