FIVE SENSES

The five human senses, responsible for capturing information from the environment, are sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch.

Smell is the sense responsible for capturing odors.

Humans have five traditionally known senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. They are the ones that allow the capture of images, sounds, flavors, odors and touches, guaranteeing a perception of the entire environment, which allows us to survive the environment.

sensory receptors

The senses are fundamental to understanding everything that happens in the environment. To capture this information, the organism relies on sensory receptors, which receive the stimulus and transform it into nerve impulses, which will be interpreted by the nervous system.

According to the stimulus they are able to perceive, receptors can be classified into:

– Chemoreceptors: Capture chemical stimuli.

– Photoreceptors: Perceive light stimuli.

– Mechanoreceptors: Capture movement, pressure and sound stimuli. In the latter case, the receivers can be called phonoreceptors.

The five senses

→ VISION

Vision is the sense responsible for capturing the light stimulus and promoting the perception of images. The organ responsible for receiving this stimulus is the eye, which has photosensitive cells in the retina.

The photoreceptor cells in the human eye are called rods and cones. The latter are found in greater quantity than the cones and are responsible for the perception of shapes. Cones, in turn, are related to color perception.

→ HEARING

Hearing is the sense responsible for perceiving sound waves and making it possible to understand the surrounding sounds. The organ responsible for this sense is the ear, which can be divided into outer, middle and inner ear.

The mechanoreceptors responsible for hearing are located in the inner ear. They are located more precisely in the cochlea , a spiral-shaped structure also called a snail.

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→ TASTE

Taste is the sense responsible for perceiving the basic flavors of food. As it is closely related to the sense of smell, when we have the flu, the tastes are not so strong.

The perception of flavors is possible thanks to the presence of taste buds , structures that contain chemoreceptor sensory cells. The papillae are mainly distributed on the tongue, but can be found on the palate, pharynx, epiglottis and larynx.

→ SMELL

Smell is the sense responsible for capturing the particles present in the air. It is through this sense that we can smell the smells in the environment. Some authors estimate that the human being is capable of differentiating about 10 thousand odors.

The organ responsible for smell is the nose, and the chemoreceptors responsible for capturing the particles are located at the top of the nasal cavity. The region where the receptors are located is called the olfactory epithelium.

→ TACT

Touch is the sense responsible for capturing tactile stimuli, feeling pressure, pain and even perceiving different temperature variations. The various mechanoreceptors responsible for this sense are distributed along the skin, mucous membranes and in some viscera. As an example of these receptors, we can mention the Pacinian, Meissner and Ruffini corpuscles.

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