The procedure basically consists of transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from a donor (or from the patient himself) to replace the diseased cells of a patient. Cells can be collected in the pelvic bones (iliac crest), peripheral blood, and the umbilical cord .
→ Bone marrow transplant modalities
There are three modalities of bone marrow transplantation . Are they:
- Allogeneic transplantation: The patient receives the bone marrow from a donor, who may or may not have some degree of kinship;
- Syngeneic transplantation : In this type of transplantation, the donor is an identical twin of the patient;
- Autogenic or autologous transplantation: the patient receives cells from his own body, which have been collected previously.
→ Profile and registration for donation
To donate bone marrow, an individual must be over 18 years of age and in good health. The potential donor must look for the blood center in their city and fill out a registration form . Then, approximately 5 mL of blood will be collected for the histocompatibility test .
After this analysis, the results will be cross-referenced with patient data in the National Registry of Volunteer Bone Marrow Donors (Redeome) . If compatibility with any patient is verified, the donor will be contacted to make the donation.
For the accomplishment of the donation, it is essential that there is genetic compatibility between the donor and the patient. A family member would be the best option for the donation, however, the rates of patients who find a donor in this environment vary between 25% and 30%.
Most patients find their donor in the National Registry of Volunteer Bone Marrow Donors (REDOME) . However, it takes a long time to get a donor, due to the low number of registered donors and the delay in the search process in the records. The search for a donor occurs both nationally and in donor registries from other countries.
→ The donation process
The donation process can occur in two ways:
- Puncture in the pelvic bones . In this case, the procedure takes place in a surgical center, and the donor is anesthetized;
- Through the veins of the arm , after use of medication.
Many people do not donate primarily out of fear of the procedure and the pain. It is worth noting that, in the first case, the donor is anesthetized during the procedure. After the cells are removed, the use of anesthetics stops the pain at the puncture sites, and the risk of serious complications is low. In both procedures, restoration of the donor bone marrow takes about 15 days.
In most cases, the bone marrow collected from the donor undergoes a filtration process to remove bone or tissue residues, is placed in a bag and immediately inserted into the patient through the central venous catheter.